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Annotated Bibliography of Works on Extensive Reading in a Second Language

To make it easier to find works on topics of interest, we have categorized the works in the bibliography by topics. The works in italics report or review empirical investigations. Check the boxes of one or more categories before clicking on one of the "Display" buttons.

 Adapting texts

These works examine the adapting and simplifying of reading materials for L2 learners.

Aston & Christian 1974; Bagster-Collins 1933; Bamford 1984; Bamford 1985; Brumfit 1979; Brumfit 1985; Carrell 1987; Crossley, Louwerse, McCarthy & McNamara 2007; Day & Bamford 1998; Gaudart 1994; Klapper 1992b; LeLoup & Penteiro 2005; Longman 1968; McQuillan & Krashen 2008; Milne 1977; Moses 2000; Sun 2003; Tabata-Sandom 2016; Tweissi 1998; Vincent 1986; Wan-a-rom 2008; Yano, Long & Ross 1994; Young 1999; Aleksandrowicz-Pędich 2009; Appleton 2004; Bouman 1985; Claridge 2005; Claridge 2011; Claridge 2012; Cobb 2007; Cobb 2008; Collins (Pub.) 1978; Crossley, Allen & McNamara 2012; Davies 1984; Dawson 2002; Harcourt Brace Jovanovich (Pub.) 1986; Hermes 1978a; Hill 2008; Hirsh & Nation 1992; Honeyfield 1977; Horst, Cobb & Meara 1998; Karp 2002; Leow 2009; Simensen 1987; Simensen 1990; Wang 2008; West 1964; Zhou & Day 2020;

 Affect

Extensive reading has been discussed and studied in terms of its impact on such variables as attitude toward reading and motivation to read.

Al-Hamoud & Schmitt 2009; Angelia & Juliaty 2021; Bamford & Day 1998; Birketveit, Rimmereide, Bader & Fisher, 2018; Burrows 2014; Cho & Krashen 2001; Collins 1980; Constantino 1995; Crawford Camiciottoli 2001; Davis, Carbon Gorell, Kline & Hsieh (--) 1992; Day & Bamford 2002; Day & Bamford 1998; Demiroz & Yesilyurt 2015; Dickinson 2017; Dupuy 1997a; Dupuy 1997c; Edy 2015; Elley 1991; Elley 1996; Fox 1990; Fredricks & Sobko 2008; Gee 1999; Gorsuch & Taguchi 2009; Hardy 2016; Hedge 1985; Hien & Vy 2022; Huang 2015; Iwata 2020; Jackson 2005; Jacobs & Renandya 2016; Jacobs, Davis & Renandya 1997 (Chapter 17); Judge 2011; Jun 2018; Kajinga 2006; Kim & Krashen 1997; Kirchhoff 2013; Kirchhoff 2015; Klapper 1992b; Krashen 1995; Krashen & Cho 1995; Kutiper 1983; Lee 2005; Lightbown et al 2002; Liu 2016; Liu & Young 2017; Mason & Krashen 1997a; McQuillan 1994; McQuillan 1996; McQuillan & Conde 1996; McQuillan & Conde 1996; Nash & Yuan 1992/93; Nishino 2007; Odo 2020; Poulshock 2010; Price 2020; Puripunyavanich 2021; Raz 2000; Renandya, Rajan & Jacobs 1999; Robb & Susser 1989; Rodrigo 1997; Rodrigo, Greenberg, & Segal 2014; Sachs 2008; Sakurai 2017; Schmidt 2007; Schon, Hopkins & Davis 1982; Schon, Hopkins & Vojir 1984; Schon, Hopkins & Vojir 1985; Shemesh 1996; Shucart & Takahashi 2013; Sin 2000; Sin 2007; Singkum & Chinwonno 2021; Suk 2016; Suk 2016; Sun 2003; Türkdoğan, G., & Sivell 2016; Tabata-Sandom 2013; Tabata-Sandom 2017; Tse 1996a; Tse 1996b; Von Sprecken, Kim & Krashen 2000; Wahjudi 2002; Wardani 2015; Yamashita 2004; Yamashita 2007; Yamashita 2013; Yau 2007; Zhang 2004; Zhao, Guo, Biales, Carrie & Olszewski 2016; de Lozier 2019; Al-Nujaidi 2003; Alshamrani 2003; Arai 2022; Benson 2014; Bond 1926; Brantmeier 2005; Byun 2010; Caruso 1994; Cheethan, Harper, Elliott & Itoh 2016; Chen 2018; Chew 2003; Chou 2016; Chow 2000; Claridge 2012; Eidswich, Praver & Rouault 2010; Eidswick, Rouault & Praver 2011; Freiermuth 2021; Fujigaki 2009; Greenberg, Rodrigo, Berry, Brinck & Joseph 2006; Grundy 2004; Hagley 2017; Heal 1998; Hickey 1991; Hitosugi & Day 2004; Hung 2012; Kane 2008; Karlin & Romanko 2010; Kitao, Yamamoto, Kitao & Shimatani 1990; Komiyama 2013; Kong 2010; Krulatz & Duggan 2018; Lado 2009; Lake 2014; Lee, Schallert & Kim 2015; Liem 2005; Lipp 1990; Lipp 2017; Loucky 2009; Maamouri 2003; MacGillivray, Tse & McQuillan 1995; Marianne 2011; Martin & Ronquillo 2021; Martinez 2017; McLean & Poulshock 2018; Mikami 2017; Mori 2002; Nakano 2016; Nation 1997; Park 2020; Petrimoulx 1988; Philpott 2015; Pilgreen & Krashen 1993; Powell 2002; Powell 2005; Pulido 2009; Raichi, Shibata & Hourdequin 2012; Rane-Szostak 1997; Rivers 1972; Ro 2013; Ro 2018; Ro 2018; Ro& Chen 2014; Robb 2013; Saleem 2010; Sheu 2003; Sheu 2004; Shih 2015; Sims 1996; Stoekel, Reagan & Hann 2012; Taboada & McElvany 2009; Takase 2003; Takase 2007; Takase 2009; Tanaka & Stapleton 2007; Tien 2015; Waring 1997; Wong 1993; Yamazaki 1996; Yang 2001; Yang, Majumdar, Li, Flanagan & Ogata 2022; You & Chen 2009; Yu 1996/1997; de Burgh-Hirabe & Feryok 2012; de Burgh-Hirabe & Feryok 2013; de Morgado 2009;

 Class readers

One form of extensive reading is when teachers guide the whole class in reading the same book (a class reader). Work with class readers can support and complement individually-selected reading done by students outside the classroom, and can link reading with other areas of the language-learning curriculum, such as speaking, listening, and writing.

Aston & Christian 1974; Ben-Yacov 1996; Bright, J. A., & McGregor 1970; Broughton, Brumfit, Flavel, Hill & Pincas 1978; Brown 2008; Brown 2009; Dawes 1979; Greenwood 1988; Hedge 1985; Livingstone, Pike, Tadman, Tunnacliffe & King 1987; Maxim 2002; Milne 1977; Ramonda 2020; Schmidt 1996; Yu, Chiu, Siu & Yau 1994; Anderson 1971; Cunningham 1991; Edinburgh Project on Extensive Reading 1992; Harcourt Brace Jovanovich (Pub.) 1986; Jacobs & Gallo 2002; Marianne 2011; Mukundan, Ting & Ali 1998; Powell 2002; Prowse 2003; Raj & Hunt 1990; Tadman 1980; Webb & Chang 2015;

 Comprehensible Input Hypothesis

Extensive reading has been investigated as a source of comprehensible input for L2 acquisition. Input consists of the spoken and written messages we receive. That input is comprehensible when we understand it. Krashen proposed the Comprehensible Input Hypothesis which states that we acquire a language in only one way. i.e., by understanding spoken and written communication in that language. Because the efficacy of comprehension-based methods is a hypothesis that supports the use of extensive reading, basic research into comprehension-based methods (reading and listening) is included in this category.

Azabdaftari 1992; Cho & Krashen 1995; Coady 1997; Deckert 2006; Elley 1991; Gardner 2008; Hafiz & Tudor 1989; Hafiz & Tudor 1990; Krashen 1981; Krashen 1989; Krashen 1993a; Krashen 1995; Krashen 1997; Krashen 2007; Krashen & Cho 1995; Lai 1991; Lai 1993a; Lee 2005; Lightbown et al 2002; Mason 2003; Mason 2005; Mason 2005; Mason 2009; Mason & Krashen 2004; Mason & Krashen, in press ; McQuillan & Rodrigo 1995; McQuillan & Tse 1998; Min 2008; Odo 2020; Reynolds & Yi 2013; Rodrigo 2009; Rodrigo, Krashen & Gribbons 2004; Schmidt 1996; Vidal 2011; Aldukhayel 2022; Chen 2018; Collet al. 1991; Dawson 2002; Jacobs 1991; Lee, Krashen & Gribbons 1996; Nunn 2009; Park 2016; Renandya 2007; Sheu 2003; Stokes, Krashen & Kartchner 1998; Teng 2014; Waring 2009;

 Glossing

This section lists works concerned with the effect of glossing in either physical or electronic texts, including hypertext links and similar devices that might aid comprehension. Studies on captioning are also included.

Abraham 2008; Al Seghayer 2001; Chang 2019; Davis 1989; Evans 1993; Gass, Winke, Isbell & Ahn 2019; Hill & Reid 1988; Huang 2014; Hulstijn, Hollander & Greidanus 1996; Khezrlou, Ellis & Sadeghi 2017; Lee & Lee 2013; Lee & Lee 2015; Lee, Warschauer & Lee 2017; Lomicka 1998; Pak 186; Parry 1991; Ramezanali & Faez 2019; Salimi & Mirian 2019; Tabata-Sandom 2016; Varol & Er 2019; Yanguas 2009; Chen 2016; Chen & Yen 2013; Cheng & Good 2009; DeRidder 2002; Jacobs 1991; Jacobs 1994; Karp 2002; Ko 2005; Ko 2012; Kost, Foss & Lenzini 1999; Nakano 2016; Taylor 2006; Taylor 2010; Taylor 2013; Teng 2019; Yoshii 2006; Yoshii 2014; Zhang & Webb 2019; Zhang & Webb 753; Zhou & Day 2020;

 Grammar

These works investigate the incidental acquisition of grammatical competence though reading.

Aka 2018; Aka 2020; Elley 1991; Elley & Mangubhai 1981; Elley & Mangubhai 1983; Grabe 1991; Hafiz & Tudor 1990; Krashen 1997; Lightbown et al 2002; Mason 2003; Mason 2004; Mason 2006; Tudor & Hafiz 1989; Caruso 1994; Fujigaki 2009; He 2014; Jin, Lu & Ni 2020; Lee, Krashen & Gribbons 1996; McLean 2013; Sheu 2003; Stokes, Krashen & Kartchner 1998;

 How to

These works describe or discuss a variety of extensive reading programs in which students individually choose their own reading materials. There are suggestions on such matters as orienting students, setting up libraries, and organizing post-reading activities. Many of the suggestions link extensive reading with other areas of the language-learning curriculum, such as speaking, listening and writing.

Anthony 1943; Bamford 1992; Bamford & Welch 1993; Bieri 2015; Brown 2008; Brown 2009; Brown 2012; Cecilia & Ojeda 2005; Chang & Millett 2015; Chang& Millet 2012; Cheah 1998; Claflin 2012; Cline 1985; Constantino 1995; David 2009; Davis 1995; Dawes 1979; Day 1993; Day 2004; Day 2014; Day 2015; Day & Bamford 2002; Dupuy 1997b; Dupuy 1998; Eskey 1973; Ewert 2009; Ewert 2017; Fox 1990; Fredricks 2007; Gee 1999; Gorsuch & Taguchi 2009; Grabe 2002; Grabe 2011; Grabe & Stoller 2001; Green 2005; Han 2010; Handschin 1919; Hayashi 1999a; Hedge 1985; Hill & Van Horn 1997; Ito 2004; Iwata 2020; Jackson 2005; Jacobs & Renandya 2015; Jacobs & Renandya 2016; Jacobs, Davis & Renandya 1997 (Chapters 1,2,4,5,6,9,10,11,15); Jun 2018; Kembo 1993; Kepe & Weagle 2020; Kitao & Shimatani 1988; Klassen & Allan 2019; Korlinska 1973; Krashen 1993b; Krashen 2002; LaBrant 1938; Latha 1999; Liang 2004; Lie 1997; Livingstone, Pike, Tadman, Tunnacliffe & King 1987; Loh 2008; Maclauchlan 2018; Marom 1996; Mason 2005; Mason & Pendergast 1997; McCracken 1971; McQuillan & Tse 1997; Mermelstein 2015; Mikulecky 2009; Milne 1977; Mok 1994; Mukundan, Ting & Ali 1998; Ng & Sullivan 2001; Nuttall 1996; Ono, Day & Harsch 2004; Park & Ro 2015; Parrott 1987; Price 2020; Ramonda 2020; Renandya & Jacobs 2016; Robb & Kano 2013; Rodrigo 1997; Sachs 2008; Samuels 1979; Schmidt 1996; Schmidt 2007; Serrano & Huang 2018; Shelton 2004; Shemesh 1996; Shimono 2019; Shlayer 1996; Smith 1997; Smith 2009; Soliman 2012; Stewart 2006; Stoller 1986; Su, Yang & He 2016; Sun 2003; Sun 2020; Tomei & Lavin 2012; Tsang 1997; Tse 1996a; Tup & Shu 1997; U 2001; Wahjudi 2002; Waring & McLean 2015; White 2007; Wiese 2017; Wolkinson & Burchfield 1998; Yamashita 2015; Yoshida 2012; Yu, Chiu, Siu & Yau 1994; Zhang 1997; Zhang 2004; Aebersold & Field 1997; Al-Rajhi 2004; Anderson 2014; Anderson 2014; Ariyanto 2009; Bamford & Day 1997; Barfield 2000; Barrett & Datesman 1992; Bell 1998; Beutow 2016; Bond 1926; Bowman 2017; Bradford-Watts & O'Brien 2007; Bright, J. A., & McGregor 1970; Broughton, Brumfit, Flavel, Hill & Pincas 1978; Bruton 2002; Busacker 1975; Byun 2010; Chou 2016; Chow 2000; Cliffe 1990; Cobb 2005; Cunningham 1991; Dawson 2002; Day & Bamford 1998; Day & Bamford 2000; Dupuy, Tse & Cook 1996; Edinburgh Project on Extensive Reading 1992; Ellis & McRae 1991; Ellis & Brewster 2014; Elturki & Harmon 2020; Fenton-Smith 2008; Fritze & Rowan 2005; Fujigaki 2009; Furr 2007; Goto 2022; Grabe 2002; Greenberg, Rodrigo, Berry, Brinck & Joseph 2006; Haider & Akhter 2012; He & Green 2012; Heal 1998; Helgesen 1997; Helgesen 2005; Hermes 1978b; Hess & Jasper 1995; Hill 1997c; Hill 2012; Hong 1997; Hsui 1994; Hsui 2000; Ikeda & Mason 1994; Jacobs & Farrell 2012; Janopoulos 2009; Jensen 1986; Jourdan-Ôtsuka 2022; Jung 2009; Jurkovac 1997; Kane 2008; Kim & Krashen 1997; King 1969; Kita, Eshel et al. 1996; Kitao, Yamamoto, Kitao & Shimatani 1990; Kong 2010; Lado 2009; Lemmer 2004; Lida & Smith 2001; Lin & Li 2012; Lipp 1990; Lipp 2017; Loucky 2009; Lynn 2014; Mac Coon 1931; MacGillivray, Tse & McQuillan 1995; Macalister 2009; Macalister 2010; Macalister 2015; Maronpot 1940; Marshall & Gilmour 1993; McLean & Poulshock 2018; McQuillan & Tse 1998; Mori 2015; Nakanishi & Ueda 2011; Nash & Yuan 1992/93; Nation 2002; Nunn 2009; Parker & Turner 1987; Piechorowski 1979; Pino-Silva 1992; Pino-Silva 2006; Powell 2002; Powell 2005; Prowse 2002; Prowse 2003; Pulido 2009; Rausch 2004; Renandya, Ivone & Hidayati 2021; Renandya, Krashen & Jacobs 2018; Reynolds 2004; Rivers 1968; Robb 2001; Robb 2015; Rodrigo, Greenberg, Burke, Hall, Berry, Brinck, Joseph & Oby 2007; Rowe 1996; Seow 1999; Shanefield 1986; Shen 2008; Shivasubramaniam 2009; Strong 1996; Stuart 1990; Susser & Robb 1989; Tadman 1980; Tagane, Naganuma & Dougherty 2018; Taguchi, Gorsuch, Takayasu-Maass & Snipp 2012; Teng 2019; Tiey, Idamban & Jacobs 1997; Vaughn, Martinez, Williams, Miciak, Fall & Roberts 2019; Wang 2008; Waring 1997; Widodo 2009; Wu 2009; Wulyani, Widiati & El Khoiri 2022; Yamanaka 1997; Yu 1993; Yu 1995,; Yu 1997; Zhang 2002;

 Internet and other electronic media

The Internet and other digital technologies offer alternatives to both paper-sourced reading material and standard classroom practice. These works report the use of electronic reading materials, and explore such topics as materials selection, effective use, and particular problems unique to online reading. There are also works on classroom practice, where students use the Internet and other electronic tools for such purposes as sharing their responses with others.

Al Seghayer 2001; Alzahrani 2022; Bieri 2015; Brown 2012; Cheah 1997; De Ridder 2002; Evans 1993; Gascoigne & Parnell 2016; Gass, Winke, Isbell & Ahn 2019; Grafstrom 2021; Hashimoto & Okazaki 2012; Hien & Vy 2022; Holster, Lake & Pellowe 2017; Huang 2007; Hulstijn, Hollander & Greidanus 1996; Khezrlou, Ellis & Sadeghi 2017; Klapper 1992c; Krashen 2007; LeLoup & Penteiro 2005; Lee 2005; Lee & Lee 2015; Lee, Warschauer & Lee 2017; Li 2007; Li 2007; Liang 2004; Liu 2016; Lomicka 1998; McQuillan & Krashen 2008; Mikulecky 2009; Poulshock 2010; Puripunyavanich 2021; Ramezanali & Faez 2019; Reynolds & Yi 2013; Robb & Kano 2013; Schmidt 1996; Shemesh 1996; Su, Yang & He 2016; Suk 2016; Sun 2003; Tabata-Sandom 2016; Varol & Er 2019; Yanguas 2009; de Lozier 2019; Al Damen 2018; Al-Rajhi 2004; Alshwairkh 2004; Ariyanto 2009; Arnold 2009; Bala 2022; Bell 1998; Beutow 2016; Bui & Macalister 2021; Chen & Yen 2013; Chou 2016; Cobb 2005; Cobb 2007; Cobb 2008; Derewianka 1997; Gönen, S. İ. & Zelbek 2022; Hagley 2017; Heal 1998; Hess & Jasper 1995; Hickey 1991; Hung 2012; Kawate 2004; Loucky 2009; Mayora, Nieves & Ojeda 2014; Peter & Webb 2018; Philpott 2015; Pino-Silva 2006; Robb 2009; Stephens 2016; Tadman 1980; Taylor 2013; Waring 2013; Yoshii 2006; Yoshii 2014;

 L2 learning

These are works that contain theories, discussions, and investigations into the role that extensive reading can play in L2 learning. (See also Comprehensible Input Hypothesis.)

Aka 2018; Azabdaftari 1992; Bieri 2015; Bochner & Bochner 2009; Constantino 1994; Constantino 1995; Davis 1995; Deckert 2006; Dupuy 1997a; Dupuy 1997c; Elley 1991; Grabe 1986; Grabe 1991; Green 2005; Han 2010; Hedge 1985; Iwahori 2008; Iwata 2020; Kim & Cho 2005; Kim & Krashen 1998; Klapper 1992c; Krashen 1993a; Krashen 1993b; Krashen 1994; Krashen 1995; Krashen 1997; Krashen 2007; Krashen, Terrell, Ehrman & Herzog 1984; Lai 1991; Lee 2006; Lee 2007; Lehmann 2007; Leung 2002; Li 2007; Lightbown et al 2002; Mangubhai & Elley 1982; Mason 2006; Mason 2009; Mason & Pendergast 1991; Maxim 1999; Maxim 2002; McQuillan 1994; McQuillan 1998; McQuillan 2020; Mok 1994; Mukundan, Ting & Ali 1998; Ng & Sullivan 2001; Otsuki & Takase 2012; Polak & Krashen 1988; Poulshock 2010; Renandya, Hu & Yu 2015; Renandya, Rajan & Jacobs 1999; Rodrigo 1997; Rodrigo, Krashen & Gribbons 2004; Schmidt 2007; Schmitt 2008; Smith 2010; Taguchi, Takayasu-Maass & Gorsuch 2004; Tsang 1997; Tse 1996b; Webb & Macalister 2013; Yamashita 2004; Yamashita 2008; Yoshida 2006; Arnold 2009; Bamford & Day 1998; Bearne 1988; Bell 1998; Benson 1991; Bond 1953; Brusch 1991; Byun 2010; Cho & Krashen 1994; Cho & Krashen 1995; Collet al. 1991; Constantino, Lee, Cho & Krashen 1997; Dawson 2002; Dupuy, Tse & Cook 1996; Edinburgh Project on Extensive Reading 1992; Elley & Mangubhai 1981; Elley & Mangubhai 1983; Ellis & McRae 1991; Fujii 2022; Furukawa 2008; Gradman & Hanania 1991; Grogan 2012; Grundy 2004; Hafiz & Tudor 1989; Hafiz & Tudor 1990; Hagboldt 1925; Hagboldt 1929; Hamada 2020; Jacobs 1991; Janopoulos 2009; Kawate 2004; Kong 2010; Krashen & Cho 1995; Laufer 2003; Lee, Krashen & Gribbons 1996; Malmeer & Araghi 2013; Maronpot 1940; Mason & Krashen 1997b; Mason & Krashen, in press ; McQuillan & Rodrigo 1995; McQuillan & Tse 1998; Mitchell & Vidal 2001; Murata 2006; Nation 1997; Ng 1994; Ng 1996; Nunn 2009; O'Sullivan 1987; Pang 2008; Piechorowski 1979; Prowse 1999; Renandya 2007; Rivers 1964; Rivers 1968; Rodrigo & McQuillan 1999; Rosszell 2007; Saleem 2010; Schackne 1994; Sheu 2003; Stephens 2015; Stokes, Krashen & Kartchner 1998; Strong 1996; Takase 2003; Takase 2007; Thomas 2020; Tudor & Hafiz 1989; Wang 2008; Waring 2009; Webb 2015; Yang 2001; You & Chen 2009; Yu 1996/1997;
 Languages other than English

These works explore extensive reading in the teaching of languages other than English.

Anthony 1943 (French); Bagster-Collins 1933 (German); Burling 1978 (French); Burling 1982 (French); Cline 1985 (Spanish); Davis 1995; Dupuy 1997a (French); Dupuy 1997b (French); Dupuy 1997c (French); Dupuy 1998 (French); Dupuy & Krashen 1997 (French); Dupuy & McQuillan 1993 (French); Dupuy & McQuillan 1997 (French); Evans 1993 (French); Gascoigne & Parnell 2016 (French); Grabe & Stoller 1997 (Portuguese); Handschin 1919 (French, German); Hardy 2016 (Spanish); Herman & Leeser 2022 (Spanish); Jimenez 2017 (Spanish); Kirin, Poolsap & Plongthong 2012 (Thai); Leung 2002 (Japanese); Maxim 1999 (German); Maxim 2002 (German); McQuillan 1996 (Spanish); Moore 1942 (Spanish, French); Moore 1943 (Spanish); Pudilo & Hambrick 2008 (Spanish); Rodrigo 1997 (Spanish); Rodrigo 2009 (Spanish); Rodrigo, Krashen & Gribbons 2004 (Spanish); Schon, Hopkins & Davis 1982 (Spanish); Schon, Hopkins & Vojir 1984 (Spanish); Schon, Hopkins & Vojir 1985 (Spanish); Sin 2000 (Chinese); Sin 2007 (Chinese); Su, Yang & He 2016 (Chinese); Suzuki & Kumada 2018 (Japanese); Tabata-Sandom 2013 (Japanese); Tabata-Sandom 2016 (Japanese); Tabata-Sandom 2017 (Japanese); Tharp 1945 (Spanish); Trotter 1936 (French); Al Khalil, Habash & Saddik 2017 (Arabic); Alessi & Dwyer 2008 (Spanish); Arnold 2009 (German); Augustyn 2013 (German); Bearne 1988 (Russian); Bond 1926 (French); Bond 1953 (French); Brantmeier 2005 (Spanish); Caruso 1994 (Spanish); Hagboldt 1925 (German); Hagboldt 1929 (German); Hagboldt 1933 (German); Hickey 1991 (French); Hitosugi & Day 2004 (Japanese); Jacobs 1991 (Spanish); Jourdan-Ôtsuka 2022; Karp 2002 (Spanish); King 1969 (German); Maronpot 1940 (Spanish); McQuillan & Rodrigo 1995 (Spanish); Mitchell & Vidal 2001 (None specified); Morgan 1938 (French, German); Nakano 2016 (Japanese); Pargment 1943 (French); Peterson 2022 (Japanese); Pigada & Schmitt 2006 (French); Rees 1992 (French); Reynolds 2004 (Japanese); Rodrigo & McQuillan 1999 (Spanish); Rodriguez-Trujillo 1996 (Spanish); Romney, Romney & Menzies 1995 (French); Stokes, Krashen & Kartchner 1998 (Spanish); Wilson 1937 (Spanish); de Burgh-Hirabe & Feryok 2012 (Japanese); de Burgh-Hirabe & Feryok 2012 (Japanese);
 Learner autonomy

Extensive reading lends itself to learner responsibility and initiative, encouraging students to take a greater hand in their own learning, and moving learning away from the sole use of teacher-fronted instruction.

Aebersold & Field 1997; Brown 2012; Cho & Krashen 2001; Crawford Camiciottoli 2001; Dupuy 1997b; Ewert 2009; Gee 1999; Grabe & Stoller 1997; Jacobs & Renandya 2015; Jacobs, Davis & Renandya 1997 (Chapter 17); Judge 2011; Lai 1993a; Lee 2007; Mason 2006; Türkdoğan, G., & Sivell 2016; Wu & Wu 2009; Ariyanto 2009; Canh 2021; Dupuy, Tse & Cook 1996; Hsui 1994; Krashen & Cho 1995; Krulatz & Duggan 2018; Lee & Ro 2020; Liem 2005; McLean & Poulshock 2018; McQuillan & Conde 1996; Nunn 2009; Rane-Szostak 1997; Rivers 1972; Rodrigo & McQuillan 1999; Romney, Romney & Menzies 1995; Taboada & McElvany 2009; You & Chen 2009; Yu 1995;
 Extensive Listening and Viewing

Articles on extensive listening, its relationship to extensive reading, or the effect of listening inside and outside the classroom to overall language ability.

Angelia & Juliaty 2021; Chang & Millett 2015; Chang, Millett & Renandya 2018; Day, Omura & Hiramatsu 1991; Feng & Webb 2020; Horst 2010; Isozaki 2018; Lightbown et al 2002; Mangubhai & Elley 1982; Mason 2005; Mukundan, Ting & Ali 1998; Renandya & Jacobs 2016; Schmidt 2007; Singh & Alexander 2022; Taguchi, Takayasu-Maass & Gorsuch 2004; Tragant Mestres, Llanes Baró & Pinyana Garriga 2018; Aldukhayel 2022; Bozorgian & Shamsi 2022; Brown, Waring & Donkaewbua 2008; Derewianka 1997; Jin & Webb 2020; Kirchhoff & Mision 2022; Milliner 2019; Mitchell & Vidal 2001; Park, Isaacs & Woodfield 2018; Prowse 2002; Reynolds 2004; Stephens 2015; Stephens 2016; Stephens 2019; Tadman 1980; Webb 2015;
 Reading ability

These works contain theories, discussions, and investigations into the role that extensive reading can play in improving L2 reading ability.

Aka 2018; Al-Hamoud & Schmitt 2009; Beglar & Hunt 2014; Beglar, Hunt & Kite 2012; Bryan 2011; Burrows 2014; Carrell & Carson 1997; Chang 2015; Chang & Millett 2015; Chang & Millett 2017; Coleman 1930; Constantino 1995; David 2009; Davis 1995; Dupuy 1997a; Dupuy 1997b; Edy 2015; Elley 1984; Elley 1996; Eskey 1973; Eskey 1987; Eskey 2002; Gorsuch & Taguchi 2009; Grabe 1986; Grabe 1991; Grabe 2002; Grabe 2010; Grabe 2017; Grabe & Stoller 1997; Grabe & Stoller 2001; Han 2010; Hardy 2016; Hayashi 1999a; Hedge 1985; Herman & Leeser 2022; Hien & Vy 2022; Holsworth 2020; Huffman 2014; Huffman 2021; Iwahori 2008; Kirin, Poolsap & Plongthong 2012; Klapper 1992a; Klapper 1992b; Krashen 1988; Krashen 1993a; Krashen 1993b; Krashen 1995; Krashen 1997; Kutiper 1983; Lai 1993a; Lai 1993b; Lau 2000; Lightbown et al 2002; Lin 2010; Masuhara, Kimura, Fukada & Takeuchi 1996; Maxim 1999; Mermelstein 2014; Moore 1942; Moore 1943; Nakanishi 2014; Nishizawa, Yoshioka & Nagaoka 2018; Nishizawa, Yoshioka & Fukuda 2010; Nuttall 1996; Pak 186; Pereyra 2015; Pucci 1998; Pudilo & Hambrick 2008; Ramaiah 1994; Robb & Kano 2013; Rodrigo 1997; Sakurai 2015; Schon, Hopkins & Davis 1982; Schon, Hopkins & Vojir 1984; Schon, Hopkins & Vojir 1985; Shlayer 1996; Singkum & Chinwonno 2021; Smith 2006; Smith 2010; Soliman 2012; Song & Sardegna 2014; Stoeckel, McLean & Nation 2020; Stoller 2015; Suzuki & Kumada 2018; Türkdoğan, G., & Sivell 2016; Tabata-Sandom 2017; Taguchi, Gorsuch & Sasamoto 2006; Taguchi, Takayasu-Maass & Gorsuch 2004; Yamashita 2004; Yamashita 2008; Yamashita 2013; Yoshida 2012; Zhao, Guo, Biales, Carrie & Olszewski 2016; de Lozier 2019; Ali, Palpanadan, Asad, Churi & Namaziandost 2022; Anderson 1996; Ariyanto 2009; Arnold 2009; Bamford & Day 1997; Bamford & Day 1998; Bell 2001; Bond 1953; Brantmeier 2005; Broughton, Brumfit, Flavel, Hill & Pincas 1978; Bruton 2002; Byun 2010; Caruso 1994; Cheng & Good 2009; Chew 2003; Chow 2000; Day & Bamford 1998; Dhanarattigannon 2022; Edinburgh Project on Extensive Reading 1992; Ercetin & Alptekin 2013; Fujigaki 2009; Fujita & Yamashita 2014; Furukawa 2008; Greenberg, Rodrigo, Berry, Brinck & Joseph 2006; Hafiz & Tudor 1989; Hassan 2002; Hassan 2002; He 2014; He 2014; Hitosugi & Day 2004; Hung 2012; Hyland 1990; Ikeda & Mason 1994; Janopoulos 2009; Jeon 2012; Jeon 2015; Jeon & Day 2016; Jin & Webb 2020; Kargar 2012; King 1969; Ko 2005; Kong 2010; Laufer-Dvorkin 1981; Leow 2009; Liem 2005; Lituanas, Jacobs, & Renandya 1999; Loucky 2009; Martin & Ronquillo 2021; Martinez 2017; McAllister 2014; Mclean & Rouault 2017; Morgan 1938; Nash & Yuan 1992/93; Nation 1997; Niwa 2019; Nunn 2009; Pang 2008; Pargment 1943; Petrimoulx 1988; Phillips 2005; Pilgreen & Krashen 1993; Pongsatornpipat 2022; Pulido 2009; Raemer 1996; Raichi, Shibata & Hourdequin 2012; Rees 1992; Renandya 2007; Robb & Susser 1989; Rodriguez-Trujillo 1996; Schackne 1994; Sheu 2003; Shih, Chern & Reynolds 2018; Sims 1996; Susser & Robb 1990; Takase 2003; Takase 2007; Takase 2009; Tanaka & Stapleton 2007; Taylor 2014; Tien 2015; Tudor & Hafiz 1989; Walker 1997; Waring 2014; Widodo 2009; Wu 2009; Yamanaka 1997; Yamazaki 1996; de Morgado 2009;
 Reading speed

These works matters concerned with reading speed, its correlation to other abilities, improving and measuring reading speed.

Aka 2020; Al-Hamoud & Schmitt 2009; Al-Homoud & Alsalloum 2012; Beglar & Hunt 2014; Beglar, Hunt & Kite 2012; Chang 2012; Chang 2014; Chang 2015; Chang 2019; Chang & Millett 2015; Chang & Millett 2017; Chang, Millett & Renandya 2018; Evans 1993; Grabe 2010; Holsworth 2020; Huffman 2021; Isozaki 2018; Iwahori 2008; Kirin, Poolsap & Plongthong 2012; Kramer & McLean 2019; Lai 1993b; Maluch & Sachse 2020; Novak 1982; Shimono 2019; Suk 2016; Suzuki & Kumada 2018; Tabata-Sandom 2017; Taguchi, Gorsuch & Sasamoto 2006; Taguchi, Takayasu-Maass & Gorsuch 2004; Wardani 2015; Yamashita 2013; Alessi & Dwyer 2008 (Spanish); Bell 2001; Bui & Macalister 2021; Fujita & Yamashita 2014; He 2014; Jeon 2012; Karlin & Romanko 2010; Mason & Krashen 1997b; McAllister 2014; Mclean & Rouault 2017; Tanaka & Stapleton 2007; Waring 2013; Yu 1996/1997;
 Language learner literature
Allan 2009; Bamford 1984; Beglar, Hunt & Kite 2012; Brumfit 1979; Burling 1968; Burling 1978; Burling 1982; Elmaliach 1992; Hedge 1985; Hill & Reid Thomas 1988a; Hill & Reid Thomas 1988b; Hill & Reid Thomas 1989; Ito 2004; Korlinska 1973; LeLoup & Penteiro 2005; McQuillan 2016; Moses 2000; Reid Thomas & Hill 1993; Schmitt 2008; Tabata-Sandom 2013; Tan & Kan 1997; Tomlinson 1998; Wan-a-rom 2008; Webb & Macalister 2013; Barfield 1998; Claridge 2012; Crossley, Allen & McNamara 2012; Day & Bamford 1998; Derewianka 1997; Edinburgh Project on Extensive Reading 1981-present; Fujigaki 2009; Hafiz & Tudor 1990; Hill 1997a; Hill 1997b; Hill 2001; Hill 2008; Hill 2009; Hill 2013; Hitosugi & Day 2004; Ji 1998; Ji 1999; Ji 2000; Kitao, Yamamoto, Kitao & Shimatani 1990; Lituanas 1997; Nation & Wang 1999; Prinsloo 2018; Sheu 2004; Simensen 1987; Susser & Robb 1990; Takase 2009; Tanaka & Stapleton 2007; Walker 1997; Waring 1997; Wodinsky & Nation 1988;
 Reading for academic purposes

Extensive reading can have a role in preparing students for L2 academic study, including the special demands of reading in tertiary education.

Carrell & Carson 1997; Cline 1985; Dunning 1988; Grabe & Stoller 2001; Jacobs, Davis & Renandya 1997 (Chapter 8); Lee, Cho, & Krashen 1997; Li 2007; Nishizawa, Yoshioka & Fukuda 2010; Novak 1982; Parry 1991; U 2001; Zimmerman 1997; Aebersold & Field 1997; Barrett & Datesman 1992; Benson 1991; Dupuy, Tse & Cook 1996; Hamp-Lyons 1983; Jensen 1986; Latorre & Kaulen 1985; Macalister 2008; Macalister 2008; Macalister 2009; Phillips 2005; Ro 2018; Ro 2018; Walker 1997;
 Reading Methods

Articles on how the research methodology employed may affect the ultimate results.

Kramer & McLean 2019; Goto 2022; McLean 2013; Ro 2018; Stephens 2019; Taylor 2006;
 Reading materials

These works present options and suggestions, sometimes including bibliographies, for assembling collections of books and other materials suitable for extensive reading. Two subgroups included here are works concerned with language learner literature (books written or adapted for L2 learners, also called graded readers) and works about student-made reading materials.

Allan 2009; Alzahrani 2022; Bieri 2015; Bochner & Bochner 2009; Brown 1988; Brown 1994; Brown 2008; Brown 2009; Bryan 2011; Chang 2014; Chang & Millett 2017; Chujo & Utiyama 2005; Cirocki 2009; Cirocki 2009; David & Dumanig 2009; Dunning 1988; Dupuy & McQuillan 1993; Ewert 2009; Gardner 2008; Gaudart 1994; Ghosn 202; Gillis-Furutaka 2015; Goulart 2020; Hien & Vy 2022; Holster, Lake & Pellowe 2017; Hsu 2020; Ito 2004; Jacobs, Davis & Renandya 1997 (Chapters 3,8,13); Kelly 1969; Korlinska 1973; Krashen 1981; Krashen 1993b; Lao & Krashen 2000; Macalister & Webb 2019; McQuillan 2016; McQuillan & Conde 1996; Mikulecky 2009; Nation & Deweerdt 2001; Nuttall 1996; Otsuki & Takase 2012; Poulshock 2010; Rodrigo 1997; Ronnqvist & Sell 1994; Salimi & Mirian 2019; Schmidt 1996; Schmitt 2008; Shucart & Takahashi 2013; Tan & Kan 1997; Toh & Raja 1997; Uden, Schmitt & Schmitt 2014; Ujiie & Krashen 1996; Webb & Macalister 2013; Yoshida 2012; Al Khalil, Habash & Saddik 2017; Al-Rajhi 2004; Aleksandrowicz-Pędich 2009; Anderson 1971; Bamford & Day 1997; Benson 1991; Bradford-Watts & O'Brien 2007; Brusch 1991; Buendgens-Kosten 2020; Cheng & Good 2009; Chew 2003; Cho & Krashen 1994; Claridge 2011; Claridge 2012; Cobb 2005; Davidson 2002; Day & Bamford 1998; Dupuy, Tse & Cook 1996; Duy & Peters 2022; Edinburgh Project on Extensive Reading 1992; Eidswich, Praver & Rouault 2010; Eidswick, Rouault & Praver 2011; Fujigaki 2009; Hagboldt 1933; Hess & Jasper 1995; Hill 2009; Jacobs 2013; Jacobs 2014; Jacobs 2014; Jin, Lu & Ni 2020; Jung 2009; Kano 2015; Kawate 2004; Ko 2005; Kong 2010; Lado 2009; Leow 2009; Lida & Smith 2001; Lin & Li 2012; Matsuoka & Hirsh 2010; Mayora, Nieves & Ojeda 2014; McLean 2014; Mizuno 2019; Nash & Yuan 1992/93; Nation 2014; Nation & Anthony 2013; Park, Isaacs & Woodfield 2018; Pino-Silva 2006; Prasetianto & Maharddhika 2022; Pulverness 2009; Rees 1992; Reynolds 2004; Robb 2001; Robb 2009; Rodrigo, Greenberg, Burke, Hall, Berry, Brinck, Joseph & Oby 2007; Sheu 2003; Sheu 2004; Shivasubramaniam 2009; Stephens 2016; Takase 2009; Taylor 2006; Taylor 2010; Widodo 2009; Wilson 1937; Wong 1993; Wu 2006; Wu 2009; You & Chen 2009; Zhang & Webb 2019; de Burgh-Hirabe & Feryok 2012; de Burgh-Hirabe & Feryok 2012;
 
 Student-made reading materials
Douglas 1996; Dupuy & McQuillan 1993; Dupuy & McQuillan 1997; Jacobs, Davis & Renandya 1997 (Chapters 12,14,16); Mak, Coniam, & Chan 2008; Day & Bamford 1998; Malgwi 1999; Shen 2008;
 Socio-cultural issues

Societies and cultures have their own practices and attitudes toward literacy, and these may need to be considered by educators introducing and using extensive reading. Issues include the selection of reading materials that match students' cultural background.

Al-Hamoud & Schmitt 2009; Ambatchew 2004; Brown 1994; Cheah 1996; Cheah 1997; David & Dumanig 2009; Davidson, Ogle, Ross, Tuhaka & Ng 1997; Elley 1984; Elley 1991; Elley 2000; Eskey 2002; Fredricks 2007; Fredricks & Sobko 2008; Gaudart 1994; Grabe 1986; Jacobs, Davis & Renandya 1997 (Chapters 2,4); Loh 2008; Maxim 1999; Mukundan, Ting & Ali 1998; Pishghadam & Zabihi 2011; Raj & Hunt 1990; Ramaiah 1994; Schon, Hopkins & Vojir 1984; Toh & Raja 1997; Trotter 1936; Tup & Shu 1997; Al-Nujaidi 2003; Aleksandrowicz-Pędich 2009; Bamford & Day 1998; Bouchaal 2001; Buendgens-Kosten 2020; Byun 2010; Cunningham 1991; Hickey 1991; Malgwi 1999; Ng 1996; Pulverness 2009; Robb 2002; Rodriguez-Trujillo 1996; Saleem 2010; Shen 2008; Strong 1996; Stuart 1990; Williams 2007; Wong 2001; Wu 2009;
 Stakeholder Attitudes

The positive or negative attitudes of other teachers, administrators and even parents can seriously affect the viability of an Extensive Reading program. Articles in this section use surveys and/or personal experience to discuss or demonstrate what attitudes and constraints exist and how they might be changed.

Ambatchew 2004; Bamford & Welch 1993; Brown 2012; Burrows 2014; Day & Bamford 2002; Demiroz & Yesilyurt 2015; Grabe 2011; Grafstrom 2021; Huang 2015; Huffman 2014; Huffman 2014; Hunt & Beglar 2007; Loh 2008; Mak, Coniam, & Chan 2008; Ng & Sullivan 2001; Owatari-Dorgan, Van Deusen, Rawson, & Matsumoto 2020; Pishghadam & Zabihi 2011; Renandya & Jacobs 2002; Smith 1997; Takase & Uozumi 2011; Yau 2007; Bouchaal 2001; Chan 2020; Chiang & Nonie 2009; Hickey 1991; Lituanas 1997; Maamouri 2003; Macalister 2010; Renandya, Ivone & Hidayati 2021; Renner 2010; Ro 2018; Rodriguez-Trujillo 1996; Yu 1993; Yu 1993;
 Student-student collaboration

These works include suggestions for activities involving collaboration by learners, as when, for example, they motivate one another to read and discuss what they have read.

Day 1993; Dupuy 1998; Fredricks 2007; Gee 1996 1999; Greenwood 1988; Hedge 1985; Hill & Van Horn 1997; Jacobs & Chau 2021; Jacobs & Renandya 2015; Jacobs, Davis & Renandya 1997 (Chapters 7,9,10,12,15); Kerechuk & Velloso Ribeiro 1984; Kirchhoff 2015; Lie 1997; Maclauchlan 2018; Mak, Coniam, & Chan 2008; McQuillan 1996; McQuillan & Tse 1997; Parker & Turner 1987; Parrott 1987; Rodgers 1997; Smith 1997; Zhang 2004; Benson 2014; Day & Bamford 1998; Dupuy, Tse & Cook 1996; Freiermuth 2021; Furr 2007; Heal 1998; Helgesen 1997; Hess & Jasper 1995; Hsui 2000; Jacobs & Gallo 2002; Kawate 2004; Lipp 1990; MacGillivray, Tse & McQuillan 1995; Ro 2018; Samway, Whang, & Pippitt 1995; Sim-Goh, Cockburn & Isbister 1997; Strong 1996;; Widodo 2009; Wong 1993; Wood, Roser & Martinez 2001;
 Vocabulary

These are investigations and discussions of how vocabulary may be learned incidentally while reading. Some of these studies investigate ways of making incidental learning more efficient, perhaps by supplementing it with intentional learning.

Abraham 2008; Aka 2018; Aka 2020; Al Seghayer 2001; Al-Hamoud & Schmitt 2009; Al-Homoud & Alsalloum 2012; Allan 2009; Bagster-Collins 1933; Bourtorwick, Macalister & Elgort 2019; Brown 2012; Chang 2019; Chang 2019; Chujo & Utiyama 2005; Coady 1997; Daskalovska 2018; Day, Omura & Hiramatsu 1991; De Ridder 2002; Dupuy 1997a; Dupuy & Krashen 1997; Elley 1991; Feng & Webb 2020; Gardner 2004; Gardner 2008; Gass, Winke, Isbell & Ahn 2019; Grabe 1991; Grabe & Stoller 1997; Hayashi 1999b; Herman & Leeser 2022; Horst 2000; Horst 2005; Horst 2010; Hsu 2018; Hsu 2020; Huang 2007; Huang 2014; Hulstijn, Hollander & Greidanus 1996; Hunt & Beglar 2007; Jimenez 2017; Khezrlou, Ellis & Sadeghi 2017; Khonamri & Roostaee 2014; Klapper 1992c; Klassen & Green 2019; Krashen 1993b; Kweon & Kim 2008; Lai 1993a; Lee 2005; Lee 2006; Lee & Lee 2013; Lee & Lee 2015; Lee, Warschauer & Lee 2017; Lehmann 2007; Leung 2002; Lightbown et al 2002; Liu & Zhang 2018; Lomicka 1998; Macalister & Webb 2019; Mason 2006; McQuillan 1996; McQuillan 2016; McQuillan 2019; McQuillan 2020; McQuillan & Krashen 2008; Min 2008; Min 2013; Moore 1942; Moore 1943; Nation & Deweerdt 2001; Parry 1991; Pazhakh & Soltani 2012; Pitts, White & Krashen 1989; Poulshock 2010; Pudilo & Hambrick 2008; Ramezanali & Faez 2019; Saragi, Nation & Meister 1978; Schmitt 2008; Serrano & Huang 2018; Smith 2006; Stewart 2006; Stoeckel, McLean & Nation 2020; Suk 2016; Suk 2021; Tomlinson 1998; Varol & Er 2019; Vidal 2011; Wan-a-rom 2008; Waring & Takaki 2003; Wesche & Paribakht 1994; Yanguas 2009; Yoshida 2006; Zhao, Guo, Biales, Carrie & Olszewski 2016; Zimmerman 1997; Alessi & Dwyer 2008; Alshamrani 2003; Alshwairkh 2004; Anderson 1996; Augustyn 2013; Bamford & Day 1998; Brown, Waring & Donkaewbua 2008; Bruton 2002; Chen 2016; Chen & Yen 2013; Cheng & Good 2009; Chew 2003; Cho & Krashen 1994; Chow 2000; Chun, Choi & Kim 2012; Cobb 2007; Cobb 2008; Davidson 2002; Gönen, S. İ. & Zelbek 2022; Horst, Cobb & Meara 1998; Huckin & Coady 1999; Iwata 2022; Kang 2015; Karlin & Romanko 2010; Karp 2002; Ko 2005; Ko 2012; Kost, Foss & Lenzini 1999; Laufer 2003; Malmeer & Araghi 2013; Marianne 2007; Marshall & Gilmour 1993; Martinez 2017; Matsuoka & Evans 2012; Matsuoka & Hirsh 2010; McLean 2013; Mizuno 2019; Murata 2006; Nation 2002; Nation 2014; Nation 2015; Nation & Wang 1999; Peter & Webb 2018; Petrimoulx 1988; Pigada & Schmitt 2006; Prichard 2008; Raptis 1997; Rodrigo & McQuillan 1999; Rosszell 2007; Rott 1999; Sheu 2003; Sonbul & Schmitt 2010; Stephens 2019; Taylor 2006; Taylor 2010; Taylor 2013; Tekmen & Daloglu 2006; Teng 2014; Thomas 2020; Tran 2006; Vaugn, Martinez, WIlliams & Miciak 2018; Wang 2013; Waring 2009; Webb 2008; Webb 2015; Webb & Chang 2015; Webb & Chang 2015; Wodinsky & Nation 1988; Yamazaki 1996; Yoshii 2006; Yoshii 2014; Zhang & Milton 2022; Zhang & Webb 2019; Zhou & Day 2020; de Morgado 2009;
 Writing

These are studies of the impact of extensive reading on L2 writing ability.

Cecilia & Ojeda 2005; Constantino 1995; Elley 1991; Han 2010; Krashen 1993b; Krieger 1991; Lai 1993a; Lai 1993b; Lau 2000; Lee & Hsu 2009; Lee & Hsu 2009; Lee & Krashen 1996; Lightbown et al 2002; Mason 2004; Mermelstein 2015; Park & Ro 2015; Smith 2010; Tsang 1996; Tsang 1997; Al-Rajhi 2004; Caruso 1994; Hafiz & Tudor 1989; Hafiz & Tudor 1990; Hedgcock 1992; Irvine 2006; Janopoulos 1986; Janopoulos 2009; Mason & Krashen 1997b; Mason & Krashen, in press ; Park 2016; Ro & Kim 2021; Saleem 2010; Susser & Robb 1989; Tudor & Hafiz 1989;
 Younger learners

Unlike most works in this bibliography which are concerned with extensive reading by young adults and adults, these works are studies and descriptions of extensive reading programs with younger learners.

Cheah 1996; Cheah 1997; Davidson, Ogle, Ross, Tuhaka & Ng 1997; DiMarzio & Coustan 1996; Elley 1984; Gee 1999; Jacobs, Davis & Renandya 1997 (Chapters 6,7,11,12,14); Latha 1999; Li 2007; Lightbown et al 2002; Macalister & Webb 2019; Mak, Coniam, & Chan 2008; Mangubhai & Elley 1982; Mok 1994; Nishino 2007; Pucci 1998; Rodgers 1997; Tragant Mestres, Llanes Baró & Pinyana Garriga 2018; Yu, Chiu, Siu & Yau 1994; Al Khalil, Habash & Saddik 2017; Anderson 1996; Chiang & Nonie 2009; Elley & Mangubhai 1981; Elley & Mangubhai 1983; Hickey 1991; Hong 1997; Hudelson 1984; Irvine 2006; Ng 1994; Ng 1996; Renner 2010; Sim-Goh, Cockburn & Isbister 1997; Tiey, Idamban & Jacobs 1997;